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September 16, Mexico celebrates its national holiday - Independence Day

On this day in 1810, the country started a popular uprising, grew into a war for the independence of Mexico from Spain.

Mexico - a country of high civilization of pre-Columbian American Indian tribes of the Maya, Toltec and Aztec. In 1517 it was invaded by the conquistadors; by the end of the XVI century it was incorporated into the Spanish colonial empire. About 300 years the indigenous population was subjected to ruthless exploitation and destruction.

Anti-colonial war in Mexico that unfolded after the occupation of Spain by Napoleon’s troops, has evolved under the influence of the French Revolution and the War of Independence in the United States. However, the liberation movement arose not among the metropolitan Creoles (white American origin), and in the center of the mining district. The uprising, which began in the village of Dolores September 16, 1810, led by the priest Miguel Hidalgo and-Costil (1753-1811).

Hidalgo-and-Costil graduated from the seminary in Valladolid, where he later was a teacher and then rector. Demoted to the parish priests for the Promotion of the French philosophes, he continued to advocate for the independence of the country and improving the economic and legal status of the Indian population.

On the night of September 16, near the house of a priest in the village of Dolores gathered a group of patriots. These were his relatives and friends, the workers of local factories and several residents of Dolores - only about three dozen people. At the head of this small group Hidalgo went to prison and freed the prisoners immediately joined the squad. Then the rebels moved to the barracks, where the seized weapons. After that, they arrested colonial officials and other representatives of the Spanish elite. At 5 am Hidalgo told to hit the bell and the church porch addressed the crowd with inspirational slogan “Independence and the death of the Spaniards!”, Went down in history under the name “Cry of Dolores”.

His call responded to hundreds of people: the people of Dolores and nearby villages, dozens of soldiers. The same morning Hidalgo led his column in the Mexico City. She is joined by peasants and hacienda villages lying along the path of movement, the miners and the poor. The rebels were armed mainly peaks, machetes, clubs, slingshots, bows. Only a few had guns.

In a short time the uprising spread to a wide area. By order of the Viceroy Francisco Javier Venegas in Mexico were concentrated military units from other cities, the garrisons of San Luis Potosi and Guadalajara are given in full combat readiness. September 27th Viceroy appointed a high cash reward for the head of Hidalgo and other leaders of the uprising.

16 September 2015

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